The Industrial Revolution:

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The origin; the Industrial Revolution in the USA; Effects of the Industrial Revolution.

The tremendous transformation that took place in the late 18th century, when people started using machinery, technical and industrial expertise to manufacture the products that once were handmade, is called The Industrial Revolution. Feudalism, which was a way of structuring society on the basis of relationships that originated from ownership of land in exchange for labor, was a prominent factor in the Medieval Europe (from the 5th to the 15th century). In this period of time, manufacturing of goods was only carried out in the level of cottage industry (operated at houses). In the feudal society, people lived in isolated administrative units, which were allegedly self-sufficient and as a result, manufacturing with an intent of selling, hardly took place. After the breakdown of this feudal system, people needed to find a way of a living and in the late 18th century, people started selling items and also started targeting market when manufacturing products, which paved the way for the Industrial Revolution.

As indicated before, the industrial Revolution started in Europe. It was mainly centered in England when started but by the 19th century, the industrialization in the areas such as mining, transportation, and technology has spread around the world, including the United States. In 1793, Samuel Slater, who had worked in a textile mill in England, has opened the first water-powered textile mill in the USA and this incident is believed to be the beginning of industrialization in the USA and consequently, Samuel Slater is known as the Father of The Industrial Revolution in the United States. Although, the United States adapted the concept of industrialization from England, some of the innovative inventions were manufactured in the USA during the 19th century. The automated flour mill, the first high-pressure steam engine, a horse-drawn mechanical reaper, the first commercial steamboat, the first telephone and the telegraph system to name a few.

The effects of The Industrial Revolution can be looked at in political, economic, social and environmental aspects. In terms of the political and social effects, there was a significant separation of the society as the factory-owned capitalist class, who produced and distributed goods and the working class, who moved into the industrial towns from rural areas, looking for jobs and sold their labor to the capitalist class. This origination of the working class was a prevalent feature of the Industrial revolution. There were ongoing conflicts between these two classes and this resulted in the formation of political philosophies such as liberalism and socialism. Apart from the two above mentioned classes, there was also a middle class, which consisted of merchants, bankers, contractors, engineers, etc. When it comes to the economic effects, breakdown of the self-sufficient economy, led to an economy that depended on importation and exportation. People started working for wages and the concept of capitalism gained immense popularity. Environmental pollution has been a main adverse effect of industrialization. The industrial waste was mainly disposed to rivers and to the atmosphere without filtering.

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