It took several decades to win the concept of freedom and equality that people enjoy today. In its’ simplest form, a revolution is a fight, in order to gain the rights of a group of people, that lasts for a particular period. The liberty that the Americans enjoy today is a result of a countless number of people that fought and sacrificed their lives for it. The war that paved the way for independence in the United States of America took place during the 18th century (1775-1783).
Invasions of the Europeans
As a consequence of European land exploration, America was “discovered”. Among the reasons why Europeans invaded America, to own lands to live peacefully and to gain religious freedom were prominent. The main nations that invaded America were Portuguese, Spanish, English, Dutch, Danish and French
Formation of States
The indigenous population in America was called “Red Indians”. Europeans invaded and destroyed the kingdoms and the culture of “Red Indians” to build new states in America. Out of these, the English invaders were the most stable. The first state, which was formed by Europeans in 1607, was Virginia. The 12 other states, formed by the English invaders are listed below.
- New York
- New Jersey
- New Hampshire
- Rhode Island
- North Carolina
- South Carolina
Amongst these first 13 colonies in America, the famous city, New York was first formed by Dutch and was called “New Amsterdam”, but then it was invaded by English and named “New York”. The 13 horizontal lines of red and white on the flag of the USA represent the 13 colonies that fought during the American Independence War.
Governance in Colonies/States
The administration of these states was carried out by a governor and an advisory board that was elected by the King in England. The governors had the freedom when governing the states but there were several restrictions on economy-related matters e.g. Even though the people were allowed to grow cotton and tobacco, they were not allowed to start industries using them. The intention behind these restrictions is to protect the textile and cigarette manufacturing industries in England.
Seven Years’ War vs. Taxes
Around this time, a power battle took place between English and French nations over the ownership of the states in America. This battle is known as the “Seven Years’ War” (1756-1763). After bearing a tremendous cost, The English won this war but to compensate for their costs, they decided to impose taxes on Americans, heavily. Some of the things they imposed taxes on were stamps, paper, and tea.
Protests against the Taxes
The indigenous Americans started protesting against the newly-imposed taxes. At the time, in England, the power to impose taxes was exercised by the parliament, which consisted of representatives of the people. On the contrary, there was no representative to attend the parliament in England to represent the people in America. As a result, the Americans argued that the English didn’t have the power to impose taxes on them. This incident drove Americans to decide to gain freedom from British governance.
“No taxation without representation”
This idea spread amongst every state in America and was used as the slogan in the revolution.
The Boston Tea Party
After considering the basis for the radical actions of Americans, The English decided to withdraw all the taxes except for the one on tea. As a result, on December 16, 1773, the frustrated and angry American colonists dumped nearly 350 cases of tea, which were about to unload in the Boston harbor, into the water, This event is considered to be the beginning of the American Revolutionary War.
4th of July
The Americans then started protesting to use the goods which had been imported from England in Philadelphia city. George Washington was chosen to lead the Patriot forces to victory in the revolution. After fighting for numerous years, on the 4 of July in 1776, the American colonies unilaterally declared their independence. At present, Americans celebrate their independence day on the 4th of July every year.